Dual,factor motivational theory and its application to the management of teachers in secondary schools in Mbale district, Uganda
This study examined Dual-factor Motivational Theory in analysing job satisfaction among teachers in secondary schools in Mbale district, Uganda. The study was guided by the following objectives: To determine the difference between teachers' facet job satisfaction by gender; to determine the correlation between nature of work, opportunities for advancement and work compensation; To determine school managers' perception about teachers' job satisfaction and; to determine other factors that influence the level of job satisfaction of teachers. Using the quantitative descriptive research design with simple correlational survey, the study included a sample of 14 headteachers and 37 deputy head teachers as human resource managers and 2 7 6 registered classroom teachers of whom 153 were male and 123 were females. Job satisfaction questionnaires and human resource managers' opinion questionnaires with close-ended, open-ended questions and interview guide were constructed and administered in collecting data. Descriptive statistics in the form of arithmetic means and standard deviations for respondents were computed for the facets of job satisfaction. The inferential statistics of t-tests were used to determine the differences in teachers' facet job satisfaction by gender. The Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was computed to determine significance of the correlation between nature of work, opportunities for advancement and work compensation. One way ANOVA was used to determine the significance in differences among the perceptions of head teachers and deputy head teachers about job satisfaction dimensions. Job satisfaction among teachers is generally low with male teachers experiencing a higher facet job satisfaction than female teachers in nature of work and opportunities for advancement. Female teachers experience a higher job satisfaction than male teachers in income. Male headteachers perceive a higher facet job satisfaction than female headteachers but it is not statistically significant. Graduate headteachers perceive a higher facet job for teachers than headteachers with master's degree but the difference is also is not statistically significant. It is concluded that job satisfaction is a multidimensional phenomenon in that it is not easy to apportion one factor as the only determinant of satisfaction/ dissatisfaction with the job. There are no specific factors that distinctly cause satisfaction and dissatisfaction as emphasised by Herzberg's Dual-factor theory. Some factors like job security for teachers are bi-polar thus cause both satisfaction and dissatisfaction .