Solid waste management system: public-private partnership, the best system for developing countries
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Solid waste management (SWM) is a major public health and environmental concern in urban areas of many developing countries. Nairobi’s solid waste situation, which could be taken to generally represent the status which is largely characterized by low coverage of solid waste collection, pollution from uncontrolled dumping of waste, inefficient public services, unregulated and uncoordinated private sector and lack of key solid waste management infrastructure. This paper recapitulates on the public-private partnership as the best system for developing countries; challenges, approaches, practices or systems of SWM, and outcomes or advantages to the approach; the literature review focuses on surveying information pertaining to existing waste management methodologies, policies, and research relevant to the SWM. Information was sourced from peer-reviewed academic literature, grey literature, publicly available waste management plans, and through consultation with waste management professionals. Literature pertaining to SWM and municipal solid waste minimization, auditing and management were searched for through online journal databases, particularly Web of Science, and Science Direct. Legislation pertaining to waste management was also researched using the different databases. Additional information was obtained from grey literature and textbooks pertaining to waste management topics. After conducting preliminary research, prevalent references of select sources were identified and scanned for additional relevant articles. Research was also expanded to include literature pertaining to recycling, composting, education, and case studies; the manuscript summarizes with future recommendationsin terms collaborations of public/ private patternships, sensitization of people, privatization is important in improving processes and modernizing urban waste management, contract private sector, integrated waste management should be encouraged, provisional government leaders need to alter their mind set, prepare a strategic, integrated SWM plan for the cities, enact strong and adequate legislation at city and national level, evaluate the real impacts of waste management systems, utilizing locally based solutions for SWM service delivery and design, location, management of the waste collection centers and recycling and compositing activities should be encouraged.